COL cover story: Review of Geostationary Interferometric Infrared Sounder
At: 2018/11/23 17:27:37 by admin

Asa main instrument onboard geostationary meteorological satellite FY-4, geostationaryinterferometric infrared sounder (GIIRS) is used to measure the infraredspectrum of the earth atmosphere. The spectrum is inverted by meteorologists toobtain three-dimensional distribution of humidity and temperature in theatmosphere and its variation with time.


Traditionalsounders, such as sounder of geostationary operational environmental satellite(GOES) in orbit and infrared atmospheric sounder of China's FY-3, detect thespectrum based on the on principle of optical filter. GIIRS is designed basedon the principle of Fourier-transform spectroscopy. Its core component isinterferometer and its spectral channels are more than 1600. And GIIRS has anoptical imaging system which conjugates targets with sensing elements (SE).Using a N×M-dimensional SE to obtain interferogram signals, GIIRS can realizelarge area coverage dynamic sounding in short time which is very important forweather prediction.


Theprimary user of GIIRS is China Meteorological Administration. By GIIRS,observation of air vertical flow is realized for the first timeinternationally. In addition, because GIIRS is a hyperspectral infrared sounderin reality with a spectral resolution of 0.625 cm-1, the field ofapplication can also cover environmental monitoring, danger forecast andmilitary etc.


Thehistory of atmospheric sounding with the Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) instrumentsfor space began in 1969 with the launch of the Nimbus meteorological satellitewhich carried the NASA interface region imaging spectrograph (IRIS) instrument.In 2000, geostationary imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (GIFTS) startedthe pre-research of the technologies of interferometric infrared sounder, butfor some reasons, its technique is not adopted by GOES-R. MTG-IRS is beingdeveloped with similar technologies and is expected to launch in 2023. This work has been published in Chinese Optics Letters, Volume 16, Issue11, 2018(Jianwen Hua et al.. Review of GeostationaryInterferometric Infrared Sounder)


For the successful launch of geostationary interferometricinfrared sounder,in November 2017, at the International Strategic CommitteeMeeting on Chinese Meteorological Satellite Programs held by WMO, WMO expert,conference chair, Dr. Tillmann Mohr pointed out: GIIRS, boarded on FY-4satellite, make China be in the lead of atmospheric sounding on geostationaryorbit in the world.


Frompre-research to the end of on-orbit test, the development process of GIIRS boardedon FY-4 satellite took 16 years. In the future, it will be loading the sequentsatellites. The development of weather observation needs higher spatialresolution and time resolution, so the further research will focus on the keytechnologies of infrared SE arrays with large size. 

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